Run Levels for Various Unices

From Wikipedia Page, The term runlevel refers to a mode of operation in one of the computer operating systems that implement Unix System V-style initialization. Conventionally, seven runlevels exist, numbered from zero to six; though up to ten, from zero to nine, may be used. S is sometimes used as a synonym for one of the levels.

In standard practice, when a computer enters runlevel zero, it halts, and when it enters runlevel six, it reboots. The intermediate runlevels (1-5) differ in terms of which drives are mounted, and which network services are started. Lower run levels are useful for maintenance or emergency repairs, since they usually don’t offer any network services at all. The particular details of runlevel configuration differ widely among operating systems, and slightly among system administrators.

The runlevel system replaced the traditional /etc/rc script used in Version 7 Unix.

Run Levels in Solaris
S, s
Single user mode. Doesn’t require properly formated /etc/inittab. Filesystems required for basic system operation are mounted.

0
Go into firmware (sparc)

1
System Administrator mode. All local filesystems are mounted. Small set of essential system processes are running. Also a single user mode.

2
Put the system in multi-user mode. All multi-user environment terminal processes and daemons are spawned.

3
Extend multi-user mode by making local resources available over the network.

4
Is available to be defined as an alternative multi-user environment configuration. It is not necessary for system operation and is usually not used.

5
Shut the machine down so that it is safe to remove the power. Have the machine remove power, if possible.

6
Reboot

a, b, c
Process only those /etc/inittab entries having the a, b, or c run level set. These are pseudo-states, which may be defined to run certain commands, but which do not cause the current run level to change.

Q, q
Re-examine /etc/inittab.

Run Levels in HP-UX
0
System is completely shut down. All processes are terminated and all file systems are unmounted.

1,s,S
Single-user mode. All system services and daemons are terminated and all file systems are unmounted.

2

Multi-user mode, except NFS is not enabled.

3
Multi-user mode. This is the normal operational default state. NFS is enabled.

4
Multi-user mode with NFS and VUE. (VUE is HP’s desktop, kinda like CDE)

6
Reboot.

Run Levels in OpenBSD
-1
Permanently insecure mode – always run system in level 0 mode.

0
Insecure mode – immutable and append-only flags may be changed. All devices may be read or written subject to their permissions.

1
Secure mode – system immutable and append-only flags may not be turned off; disks for mounted filesystems, /dev/mem, and /dev/kmem are read-only.

2
Highly secure mode – same as secure mode, plus disks are always read-only whether mounted or not and the settimeofday(2) system call can only advance the time.

Run Levels in ULTRIX, Digital UNIX / Tru64
0
System is completely shut down. All processes are terminated and all file systems are unmounted.

1
Single-user mode. All system services and daemons are terminated and all file systems are unmounted.

2
Multi-user mode, except NFS is not enabled.

3
Multi-user mode. This is the normal operational default state. NFS is enabled.

4
Not Used

5
Not Used

6
Reboot

Run Levels in Irix
0
Shut the machine down so it is safe to remove the power. Have the machine remove power if it can.

1
Put the system into system administrator mode. All filesystems are mounted. Only a small set of essential kernel processes run. This mode is for administrative tasks such as installing optional utilities packages. All files are accessible and no users are logged in on the system.

2
Put the system into multi-user state. All multi-user environment terminal processes and daemons are spawned. Default.

3
Start the remote file sharing processes and daemons. Mount and advertise remote resources. Run level 3 extends multi-user mode and is known as the remote-file-sharing state.

4
Define a configuration for an alternative multi-user environment. This state is not necessary for normal system operations; it is usually not used.

5
Stop the IRIX system and enter firmware mode.

6

Stop the IRIX system and reboot to the state defined by the initdefault entry in inittab.

a,b,c
Process only those inittab entries for which the run level is set to a, b, or c. These are pseudo-states that can be defined to run certain commands but do not cause the current run level to change.

Q,q
Re-examine inittab.

S,s
Enter single-user mode. When the system changes to this state as the result of a command, the terminal from which the command was executed becomes the system console.

Run Levels in SYSV
The following is from a SYSV text book, it’s the generally used run level for SYSV systems.

0
Power-down state. Shuts machine down gracefully so that it can be turned off. Some models turn off automatically.

s
Single user state. This run level should be used when installing or removing software utilities, checking file systems, or using Maintenance (/install) file system. It is similar to run level 1; however, in run level s, multi-user file systems are unmounted and daemons are stopped. The terminal issuing the init s becomes the console.

1
Administrative state. In run level 1, file systems required for multi-user operations are mounted. And loggias requiring access to multi-user file systems can be used.

2
Multi-user state. File systems are mounted and normal user services are started.

3
Network File System (NFS) state. Prepares your system to use NFS.

4
User-defined

5
Virtually the same as System State 6. See /sbin/rc0 script for details. Early versions of UNIX used this as an entry to a firmware interface.

6
Power-down and reboot to the state defined by the initdefault entry in the /etc/inittab file.

Run Levels in Linux
0
Halt the system.

1
Single-user mode.

2-4
Multi-user modes. Usually identical. Level 2 or 3 is default (dependent on distro).

5
Multi-user with graphical environment. This applies to most (but not all) distros.

6
Reboot the system and return to default run level.

ACSLS Command Reference

AUTOMATED CARTRIDGE SYSTEM LIBRARY SOFTWARE (ACSLS) v7.1 COMMAND LINE GUIDE:

acsss_config run configuration script
bpdb.acsss backup acsls database
cmd_proc_shell provide shell access to the cmd_proc
config drives <panel_id> dynamically enables the addition, changes or delete drive type
db_command start|stop start or stop database
db_export.sh -f db_file to migrate acsls database to another version
db_import.sh -f db_file Import acsls database from another version
del_vol delete volume from an offline lsm
drives_media.sh display all drives types, media types and drive-to-media compatibility
find_tty.sh identify any available port that can be used by acsss
get_license_info display details on the installed license
greplog utility to filter acsss_event.log
kill.acsss terminate acsls
rc.acsss start acsls
rdb.acsss restore/recover acsls database
bdb.acsss -f /dev/rmt/2 backup database to specific tape
bdb.acsss -f db_file backup database to specific file
stats_report gather library volume statistical information
volrpt create volume report
watch_vols automatically assign ownership and pool association to volume as they are entered trough the CAP
idle stops acsls from processing new request
set cap mode automatic|manual change cap mode to automatic or manual

exp:

set cap mode automatic 0,0,1

set cap priority <0-16> Exp. set cap priority 16 0,0,1
Audit

Exp.

audit 0,0,1 lsm 0,0

audit 0,0,1 panel 0,1,12

update acsls database to match the actual inventory of library volumes.

to audit lsm 0,0 and specify cap 0,0,1 for ejection

to audit panel 12 and specify cap 0,0,1 for ejection

query request all to display request IDs for all current and pending request
query volume DX123 query specific volume
cancel <request_id> cancels a current or pending request
clear lock

Exp.

clear lock drive 0,0,10,0

to remove all active and pending locks on specific tranport or volume

clear lock for drive 0,0,10,0

mount <vol_id> <drive_id> Mount specific volume to specific drive

Exp. mount clnu001 0,0,10,0

Dismount <vol_id> <drive_id> dismount specific volume from specific drive

exp. dismount EDU200 0,0,10,1

move <vol_id> <lsm_id> move a specified volume to an available storage cell
eject <cap_id> <vol_id> eject specific volume to specific cap
eject <vol_range>

enter<cap_id>

Exp. eject EDU2000-EDU2050

insert/import cartridge to library from specific cap

venter make a cap ready to enter unlabelled cartridge

(L5500, SL500 and SL8500 do not support unlabelled cartridge)

set clean <max_usage>

exp.

set clean 50 CLNU001

set clean off CLNU001

set the maximum usage of cleaning cartridge

set the maximum use to 50

set cleaning cartridge atribute off

set owner <owner_id> volume <vol_id> | volrange set volume ownership
set scratch [off] <pool_id> <vol_id> | volrange set or clear a volume scratch attribute and assign the volume to a pool
switch lmu <acs_id> manually switch lmu (on dual lmu configuration)
logoff exit from cmd_proc

Continue reading

Configure Netbackup Device (Robot & drive) on AIX

Hardware :
Sun Storagetek L40 with SCSI LVD/SE.
2 drive : Seagate LT01 and SDLT 320
SCSI ID : Robotic = 6
Drive 0 = 0
Drive 1 = 1
———

1. run command : lsdev –C –c adapter (to determine the logical indetifier for the SCSI controler)
# lsdev -C -c adapter
ent0 Available 10-80 IBM 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter (23100020)
fda0 Available 01-D1 Standard I/O Diskette Adapter
mg20 Available 10-70 GXT130P Graphics Adapter
paud0 Available 01-Q2 Ultimedia Integrated Audio
ppa0 Available 01-R1 CHRP IEEE1284 (ECP) Parallel Port Adapter
sa0 Available 01-S1 Standard I/O Serial Port
sa1 Available 01-S2 Standard I/O Serial Port
scsi0 Available 10-60 Wide/Fast-20 SCSI I/O Controller (used for CDROM & SCSI Hardisk)
scsi1 Available 10-88 Wide/Ultra-2 SCSI I/O Controller (Tape & robotic)

sioka0 Available 01-K1-00 Keyboard Adapter
siokma0 Available 01-K1 Keyboard/Mouse Adapter
sioma0 Available 01-K1-01 Mouse Adapter
siota0 Available 01-Q1 Tablet Adapter

2. run command : lsdev –C –s scsi (to display the SCSI device files)
# lsdev -C -s scsi
cd0 Available 10-60-00-1,0 16 Bit SCSI Multimedia CD-ROM Drive
hdisk0 Available 10-60-00-9,0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
rmt0 Available 10-88-00-0,0 Other SCSI Tape Drive
rmt1 Available 10-88-00-1,0 Other SCSI Tape Drive

Note:
Detected two drives, but robotic didn’t detected.

3. to detect robot, run this command :
#cd /usr/openv/volmgr/bin/driver
#./install_ovpass {to install the SCSI passthru driver}

Then run:
#mkdev -c media_changer -s scsi -t ovpass -p controller -w id,lun

Where:
◆ controller is the logical identifier of the drive’s SCSI adaptor, such as scsi0, scsi1 or vscsi1.
◆ id is the SCSI ID of the robotic connection.
◆ scsi_id is the fibre channel identifier for the N_Port address (D_ID) of the robotic connection.
◆ lun is the logical unit number of the robotic connection.

Example:
# mkdev -c media_changer -s scsi -t ovpass -p scsi1 -w 6,0

4. run command : lsdev –C –s scsi (to display the SCSI device files)
# lsdev -C -s scsi
cd0 Available 10-60-00-1,0 16 Bit SCSI Multimedia CD-ROM Drive
hdisk0 Available 10-60-00-9,0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
ovpass0 Available 10-88-6,0 VERITAS Media Changer {SCSI device driver for robotic}
rmt0 Available 10-88-00-0,0 Other SCSI Tape Drive {SCSI device driver for drive0)
rmt1 Available 10-88-00-1,0 Other SCSI Tape Drive {SCSI device driver for drive1)

5. make sure with the performing command: ./scan from /usr/openv/volmgr/bin/
#cd /usr/openv/volmgr/bin
# ./scan
************************************************************
*********************** SDT_TAPE ************************
*********************** SDT_CHANGER ************************
*********************** SDT_OPTICAL ************************
************************************************************
————————————————————
Device Name : “/dev/rmt0.1”
Passthru Name: “/dev/rmt0.1”
Volume Header: “”
Port: -1; Bus: -1; Target: -1; LUN: -1
Inquiry : “SEAGATE ULTRIUM06242-XXX1619”
Vendor ID : “SEAGATE ”
Product ID : “ULTRIUM06242-XXX”
Product Rev: “1619”
Serial Number: “xxx”
WWN : “SEAGATE ULTRIUM06242-XXX ”
WWN Id Type : 1
Device Identifier: “SEAGATE ULTRIUM06242-XXX”
Device Type : SDT_TAPE
NetBackup Drive Type: 3
Removable : Yes
Device Supports: SCSI-3
Flags : 0x4
Reason: 0x0
————————————————————
Device Name : “/dev/rmt1.1”
Passthru Name: “/dev/rmt1.1”
Volume Header: “”
Port: -1; Bus: -1; Target: -1; LUN: -1
Inquiry : “QUANTUM SDLT320 5E5E”
Vendor ID : “QUANTUM ”
Product ID : “SDLT320 ”
Product Rev: “5E5E”
Serial Number: “xxx”
WWN : “QUANTUM SDLT320 xxx”
WWN Id Type : 1
Device Identifier: “QUANTUM SDLT320 xxx ”
Device Type : SDT_TAPE
NetBackup Drive Type: 11
Removable : Yes
Device Supports: SCSI-2
Flags : 0x4
Reason: 0x0
————————————————————
Device Name : “/dev/ovpass0”
Passthru Name: “/dev/ovpass0”
Volume Header: “”
Port: -1; Bus: -1; Target: -1; LUN: -1
Inquiry : “STK L40 xxx”
Vendor ID : “STK ”
Product ID : “L40 ”
Product Rev: “0215”
Serial Number: “LLC0220xxx”
WWN : “”
WWN Id Type : 0
Device Identifier: “”
Device Type : SDT_CHANGER
NetBackup Robot Type: 8
Removable : Yes
Device Supports: SCSI-3
Number of Drives : 0
Number of Slots : 0
Number of Media Access Ports: 0
Flags : 0x0
Reason: 0x0
# lsdev -C -s scsi
cd0 Available 10-60-00-1,0 16 Bit SCSI Multimedia CD-ROM Drive
hdisk0 Available 10-60-00-9,0 16 Bit LVD SCSI Disk Drive
ovpass0 Available 10-88-6,0 VERITAS Media Changer
rmt0 Available 10-88-00-0,0 Other SCSI Tape Drive
rmt1 Available 10-88-00-1,0 Other SCSI Tape Drive
# lsdev -C -c adapter
ent0 Available 10-80 IBM 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter (23100020)
fda0 Available 01-D1 Standard I/O Diskette Adapter
mg20 Available 10-70 GXT130P Graphics Adapter
paud0 Available 01-Q2 Ultimedia Integrated Audio
ppa0 Available 01-R1 CHRP IEEE1284 (ECP) Parallel Port Adapter
sa0 Available 01-S1 Standard I/O Serial Port
sa1 Available 01-S2 Standard I/O Serial Port
scsi0 Available 10-60 Wide/Fast-20 SCSI I/O Controller
scsi1 Available 10-88 Wide/Ultra-2 SCSI I/O Controller
sioka0 Available 01-K1-00 Keyboard Adapter
siokma0 Available 01-K1 Keyboard/Mouse Adapter
sioma0 Available 01-K1-01 Mouse Adapter
siota0 Available 01-Q1 Tablet Adapter
#

6. ALL DETECTED NOW!!
To ensure the driver device files are accessible after each system boot, the following command should be placed in the systemstartup script:
/usr/openv/volmgr/bin/driver/mkdev_ovpass

7. If u get an error, maybe there caused by the SCSI connection.
to remove the SCSI passthru driver, run : ./remove_ovpass from /usr/openv/volmgr/bin/driver

Installing AIX from a Backup

The AIX operating system can be installed from a system backup tape created using smitty mksysb

To install AIX from a system backup:
1. Make sure that the tape drive is turned ON.
2. Make sure that the server is turned ON.
3. Open the tape drive door.
4. Turn the key to “Service”.
5. Insert the AIX Operating System backup tape into the tape drive.
6. Close the tape drive door.
7. On the server, press the “Reset” button twice.
If the TESTING COMPLETED screen displays, press [[Enter]] to continue.
Note: For a few minutes the system might appear idle. Do not open the tape drive door. Wait for the next screen to display.
8. The following message displays: “Please define the system Console”
Press [[F1]] to define the system console and then press [[Enter]]. The INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE screen appears.
9. Select Install a System that was created with SMIT “Backup The System” function or the “mksysb” command
Press [[Enter]] to install the operating system from the backup tape. The CURRENT SYSTEM SETTINGS screen displays.
10. Verify that the system settings are correct. If the correct settings are displayed, select Install a SMIT “Backup The System” image with the current setting. Press [[Enter]]. The Final Warning screen displays.
11. Select Continue with installation. Press [[Enter]].
12. Press [[Enter]] to start the tape. The installation takes 45 minutes to 1.5 hours.
13. Turn the key to “Normal” before the installation completes. When the installation is complete, a screen displays indicating that the AIX Base Operating System installation is complete.
14. Remove the AIX Operating System backup tape from the tape drive.
15. Press [[Enter]] to reboot the server.
16. During rebooting ignore the following error messages:
The System Resouce Controler daemon is not active. Machine not identical previous configuration. Shutdown, rebooting

Note: If the system used to create the backup tape is not the same as the system on which it is now being installed, the server might reboot two or three times.

Each time the server reboots, the system reconfigures. When the server reboots successfully, a login prompt displays.

Checking and Repairing File system with fsck

Checking and Repairing File system with fsck

fsck is a Unix utility for checking and repairing file system inconsistencies. File system can become inconsistent due to several reasons and the most common is abnormal shutdown due to hardware failure , power failure or switching off the system without proper shutdown . Due to these reasons the superblock in a file system is not updated and has mismatched information relating to system data blocks, free blocks and inodes .

Modes of operation :

fsck operates in two modes interactive and non interactive :

interactive : the fsck examines the file system and stops at each error it finds in the file system and gives the problem description and ask for user response usually whether to correct the problem or continue without making any change to the file system.

noninteractive :fsck tries to repair all the problems it finds in a file system without stopping for user response useful in case of a large number of inconsistencies in a file system but has the disadvantage of removing some useful files which are detected to be corrupt .

If file system is found to have problem at the booting time non interactive fsck fsck is run and all errors which are considered safe to correct are corrected. But if still file system has problems the system boots in single user mode asking for user to manually run the fsck to correct the problems in file system

Running fsck :

fsck should always be run in a single user mode which ensures proper repair of file system . If it is run in a busy system where the file system is changing constantly fsck may see the changes as inconsistencies and may corrupt the file system .

if the system can not be brought in a single user mode fsck should be run on the partitions ,other than root & usr , after unmounting them . Root & usr partitions can not be unmounted . If the system fails to come up due to root/usr files system corruption the system can booted with CD and root/usr partitions can be repaired using fsck.

command syntax:

fsck [ -F fstype] [-V] [-yY] [-o options] special

-F fstype type of file system to be repaired ( ufs , vxfs etc)

-V verify the command line syntax but do not run the command

-y or -Y Run the command in non interactive mode – repair all errors encountered without waiting for user response.

-o options Three options can be specified with -o flag

b=n where n is the number of next super block if primary super block is corrupted in a file system .

p option used to make safe repair options during the booting process.

f force the file system check regardless of its clean flag.

special – Block or character device name of the file system to be checked/repaired – for example /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s4 .Character device should be used for consistencies check & repair

phases:

fsck checks the file system in a series of 5 pages and checks a specific functionality of file system in each phase.

** phase 1 – Check Blocks and Sizes

** phase 2 – Check Pathnames

** phase 3 – Check Connectivity

** phase 4 – Check Reference Counts

** phase 5 – Check Cylinder Groups

Error messages & Corrective action :

1. Corrupted superblock – fsck fails to run

If the superblock is corrupted the file system still can be repaired using alternate superblock which are formed while making new file system .

the first alternate superblock number is 32 and others superblock numbers can be found using the following command :

newfs -N /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6

for example to run fsck using first alternate superblock following command is used

fsck -F ufs -o b=32 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6

2.Link counter adjustment : fsck finds mismatch between directory inode link counts and actual directory links and prompts for adjustment in case of interactive operation .Link count adjustments are considered to be a safe operation in a file system and should be repaired by giving ‘y’ response to the adjust ? prompt during fsck.

3.Free Block count salvage : During fsck the number of free blocks listed in a superblock and actual unallocated free blocks count does not match .fsck inform this mismatch and asks to salvage free block count to synchronize the superblock count. This error can be corrected without any potential problem to the file system or files.

4.Unreferenced file reconnection : While checking connectivity fsck finds some inodes which are allocated but not referenced -not attached to any directory . Answering y to reconnect message by fsck links these files to the lost+found directory with their inode number as their name .

To get more info about the files in lost+found ‘file’ command can be used to see the type of files and subsequently they can be opened in their applications or text editors to find out about their contents. If the file is found to be correct it can be used after copying to some other directory and renaming it.

Next Steps :

The fsck topic here paid a brief visit to some of general aspects of fsck but a detailed document on fsck is comming up to cover most of the error messages and there explanation so watch out if you are looking for more details.

fsck is covered in most of the sysadmin books and you can buy some of the books from amazon.com or besttechbooks.com which is a amazon affiliate site with focus obly on technical books.

Booting microchannel systems into Service mode

To boot microchannel systems into Service mode, turn the key to the Maintenance position and press the yellow reset button twice. You must boot from bootable media, such as an installation CD-ROM, installation tape, or a bootable backup tape made via the mksysb command or the Sysback product of the correct level for this machine.

For AIX Version 3.2, you may use bootable bosboot diskettes. To boot from these, insert the first bosboot diskette into the diskette drive. When you see LED c07, insert the next diskette, which is usually the display extensions diskette. After this diskette is read, you should receive a menu prompting you for the installation diskette.

For information on accessing your rootvg volume group, see the section entitled “Accessing rootvg and mounting file systems”.
The preceding discussion assumes that the Service mode bootlist has not been modified from the default bootlist. If the bootlist has been modified, it must be reset such that one of the boot media types from the preceding selections is before the standard boot media, such asthe hard disk.

If the machine is an SMP model (7012-Gxx, 7013-Jxx, and 7015-Rxx) and the Autoservice IPL flag is disabled, then a menu like the following will display when it is booting in Service mode:
MAINTENANCE MENU (Rev. 04.03)
0> DISPLAY CONFIGURATION
1> DISPLAY BUMP ERROR LOG
2> ENABLE SERVICE CONSOLE
3> DISABLE SERVICE CONSOLE
4> RESET
5> POWER OFF
6> SYSTEM BOOT
7> OFF-LINE TESTS
8> SET PARAMETERS
9> SET NATIONAL LANGUAGE
SELECT:
You can boot these machines into Service mode or even Normal mode with the Fast IPL Flag set. If you do not, the machine can take anywhere from 30 to 60 minutes to boot up. There are a few ways to set the Fast IPL Flag for these machines.
NOTE: The console must be an ASCII type and connected to the S1 port of the system. Graphic monitors will not work.
Use the following instructions to boot SMP machines into service with Fast IPL set.
1. Insert the bootable media of the same OS Level. Use the mksysb/cd-rom command.
2. Turn off the machine by pressing the white button on front.
3. Turn the key to the Wrench or Service position.
4. The LCD should read STAND-BY.
5. Press the Enter key on the console.
6. A greater-than prompt (>) should display on the monitor.
7. Type in sbb followed by the Enter key.
8. The menu Stand By Menu should now display.
9. Select 1 Set Flags. This will take you to another set of menus.
10. Select 6 Fast IPL. This should change to enable after it is selected.
11. Enter x to exit the second set of menus.
12. Enter x to exit the first menu.
13. At a blank screen, press the Enter key to obtain the greater-than prompt (>).
14. Type in the word power followed by the Enter key.
15. Turn the machine back on. It should start to boot up. A prompt may display asking if you want to update the firmware. Do not respond; let it continue.
16. Now you may be at the Maintenance Menu with 10 options displayed, 0 through 9. If that is the case, select option 6, System Boot. This will take you to another menu. Select option 0, Boot from the list.
17. The Standard Maintenance Menu should display. System recovery and maintenance can be completed from here.
18. After system recovery and maintenance has been performed, the system is ready to be rebooted into Normal mode. Enter the command mpcfg -cf 11 1 at the command line prompt, then press Enter. This will set the Fast IPL Flag. The system is ready to reboot.
19. Turn the key back to the OK/Normal position.
20. Enter shutdown -Fr, followed by the Enter key.
________________________________________
Booting PCI-based systems into Service mode
When booting a PowerPC into Service mode, cd0 or rmt0 must be before the hdisk in the bootlist. If not, change the bootlist at boot time. On some models, you can set the machine to use a default bootlist that includes both cd0 and rmt0. If a bootable CD or tape is in the CD-ROM or tape drive, the machine will boot from this device.
For most of the newer PCI-based models, selecting the default bootlist, with a bootable tape or CD loaded in the machine, causes the system to automatically boot from that device. Generally, the next menu on the screen asks the administrator to define the system console.
For all machines discussed here, if you are using a graphical terminal, you will use a function key such as F5. If you are using an ASCII terminal, use an equivalent number key such as 5. Use the numbers across the top of the keyboard, not the numbers on the numeric keypad. On ASCII terminals, the icons may not be displayed on the screen; the number can be pressed between the second and third beeps, the second beep being a series of three clicks.
________________________________________
PCI machine-specific information
The following systems all use the F5 or 5 key to read from the default boot list, which is written into the system firmware:
MODEL 7017 7024 7025 7026 7043 7137
——- ——- ——- ——- ——- ——- ——-
TYPE S70 E20 F30 H10 43P-140 F3L
S7A E30 F40 H50 43P-150
S80 F50 H70 43P-240
B80 43P-260
On these machines, use 5 (on the keyboard, not the keypad) if you are using an ASCII terminal. On a locally attached graphics console, use the F5 function key. The F5 or 5 key must be pressed just after the keyboard icon or message is displayed on the console. If you have either a 7026-M80, 7026-H80 or a 7025-F80, then the 5 key will be the default whether you have an ascii or graphics console.
The following systems use the F1 key to enter System Management Services mode (SMS):
MODEL 6040 7042 7247 7249
——- ——- ——- ——- ——-
TYPE 620 850 82x 860
You should be in an Easy-Setup menu. Select the Start Up menu. Clear the current bootlist settings and then select the CD-ROM for choice 1 and hdd (the hard disk) for choice 2. Select OK. Insert the CD-ROM and select the EXIT icon. The machine should now boot from the CD-ROM.
The following systems use the F2 key to enter SMS:
MODEL 6015 6050 6070 7020 7248
——- ——- ——- ——- ——- ——-
TYPE 440 830 850 40P 43P
Select Select Boot Device from the initial menu on the screen, and then select Restore Default Settings from the list. Press the Esc key to exit all the menus, and then reboot the machine. The system should boot from your bootable media.
For information on accessing the rootvg volume group, see the next section in this document.
________________________________________
Accessing rootvg and mounting file systems
For AIX Version 3, choose the limited function maintenance shell (option 5 for AIX 3.1, option 4 for AIX 3.2).
If you only have one disk on the system, then hdisk0 will be used in the execution of the getrootfs or /etc/continue commands, which follow. If you have more than one disk, determine which disk contains the boot logical volume in this manner:
AIX 3.2.4 or AIX 3.2.5:
Run getrootfs; the output will indicate which disk contains the hd5 logical volume.
AIX 3.1 to AIX 3.2.3e:
Run lqueryvg -Ltp hdisk# for each hdisk. You can obtain a listing of these with the command lsdev -Cc disk. Repeat this command until you get output similar to the following:
00005264feb3631c.2 hd5 1
If more than one disk contains this output, use any disk when running getrootfs.
Now, access the rootvg volume group by running one of the following commands, using the disk you obtained in the preceding step:
AIX 3.1: /etc/continue hdisk#
AIX 3.2.0-3.2.3e: getrootfs -f hdisk#
AIX 3.2.4-3.2.5: getrootfs hdisk#
NOTE: If you want to leave the primary OS file systems (/, /usr, /tmp, and /var) unmounted after this command has completed, to run fsck, for instance, place a space and the letters sh after the hdisk in the preceding command. For example:
getrootfs hdisk0 sh
For AIX Versions 4 and 5, choose Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery , option 3. The next screen will be called Maintenance; select option 1, Access a Root Volume Group. At the next screen, type 0 to continue, and select the appropriate volume group by typing the number next to it. A screen like the following will display.
Example:
Access a Root Volume Group
Type the number for a volume group to display the logical volume information and press Enter.
1) Volume Group 0073656f2608e46a contains these disks:
hdisk0 2063 04-C0-00-4,0
Once a volume group has been selected, information will be displayed about that volume group.
Example:
Volume Group Information
——————————————————————————
Volume Group ID 0073656f2608e46a includes the following logical volumes:
hd6 hd5 hd8 hd4 hd2 hd9var
hd3 hd1
——————————————————————————
Type the number of your choice and press Enter.
1) Access this Volume Group and start a shell
2) Access this Volume Group and start a shell before mounting filesystems
99) Previous Menu
If the logical volumes listed do not include logical volumes like hd4, hd2, hd3, and so on, you may have selected the wrong volume group. Press 99 to back up one screen and select again.
Now you may select one of two options: Access this volume group and start a shell , option 1, or Access this volume group and start a shell before mounting file systems , option 2. Option 2 allows you to perform file system maintenance on /, /usr, /tmp, and /var before mounting them.
NOTE: If you intend to use SMIT or vi, set your terminal type in preparation for editing the file. xxx stands for a terminal type such as lft, ibm3151, or vt100.
TERM=
export TERM
Errors from these steps may indicate failed or corrupt disks in rootvg. These problems should be corrected. For additional assistance, contact your vendor, your local branch office, or your AIX support center.
________________________________________
Known problems
NOTE: Ensure you are using an original AIX base media to boot from, rather than a burned copy.
You may receive the following error when trying to access rootvg in service mode at AIX 5.1:
Examine .loader section symbols with the ‘dump -Tv’ command.
Could not load program /usr/bin/ksh: Symbol resolution failed for /usr/lib/libc.a (shr.o)
because: OID Symbol getvtid (number 258) is not exported from dependent RS4
module /unix.
This error is likely due to a mismatch of the boot media and the system’s AIX level.
Solution
Use a non-auto install mksysb from the same system, or use AIX CD media labeled LCD4-1061-04 or higher (9/23/2002, integranted ML03)
________________________________________
Related documentation
For more in-depth coverage of this subject, the following IBM publication is recommended:
AIX Version 4.3 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices
AIX Version 5.1 System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices

AIX on IBM RS/6000 hangs on boot?

Taken from forums: AIX on IBM RS/6000 hangs on boot, any ideas ?

my system hangs on boot just after dpid2 subsystem is loaded. Propably something wrong with the firmware. Somehow I can’t even boot from cd or floppy.

system is:
IBM RS/6000 43P-240
os: AIX v_4.2.1

thanks,
——————–
If the book sequence gets as far as starting up dpid2, it isn’t a firmware problem. You need to get into single user mode and fix it. (I assume you have a good reason for running such an old, unsupported, version of AIX; but if not, upgrading to AIX 5.1 or 5.2 would be a Good Thing(TM) when you can – if memory serves, 4.2.1 is about 8 years old now).

The most likely reason not to be able to boot from CD is that the bootlist sees the hard disk first. If you haven’t checked this, it’s worth a look. When you boot up, you get words coming up : keyboard…mouse…SCSI…speaker (something like that, anyway). After keyboard comes up, you have a few seconds (until the second beep) to hit a function key and either enter the SMS menu or use the default bootlist, either of which should help. I can’t remember which key it is for than model of RS/6000.

If you have a graphical console, try f1, f4 or f5. If an ascii console, try 1, 4 or 5.

If you get into the SMS menu, go to multiboot and change the boot device order by putting cd0 first. The default bootlist should have cd0 before hdisk0 in the bootlist.

if you want to boot from CD, just hit f5 after the keyboard icon. That will boot from the CD drive, regardless of what’s in the normal mode bootlist. F1 goes to the SMS menu, if that’s what you want.
——-
Code 581 does mean internet.

If it has a graphics card, attach a VGA terminal and a regular keyboard. When you see the IBM logo on the screen, press F1 (i usually press several times, just to be sure).

This should bring you into the SMS menu.

If the box does not repond to this, then the console had been redefined to the serial port. Default speed is 9600,N,8,1. Instead of F1, press 1 (ascii char ‘1’ (one)).

If you have been able to get an AIX bootable disk:
* go to maintaince mode, (“Start System Maintaince Mode for System Recovery, generally option 3)
* choose “Access Root Volumn Group”
* verify you want this
* determine which disk you want to boot
* the list of partitions will probably contain “hd1 hd2 hd3 hd4 hd5 hd6 hd8 hd9var hd10opt”
* choose to activate that disk mounting filesystems before starting ksh
* remove the root password
# passwd
* remove the internet definitions
# lsdev -Cc adapter
* for each of the ethernet adapters (assuming you have two : ent0 ent1)
# for i in 1 2; do; rmdev -dl en${i}; rmdev -dl et${i}; rmdev -dl ent${i}; done
# rmdev -dl inet0
# sync; sleep 3; reboot -q
==========
system should go into reboot quickly, and no 581 code anymore, and no need to guess root password. It is what you set it to, or blank if you just entered “return”.